8 Common Diabetes Medicines and Their Side Effects


Metformin helps control blood sugar levels. Side Effects: Nausea, diarrhea, stomach upset, and a rare but serious condition called lactic acidosis.


Sulfonylureas increase insulin production. Side Effects: Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), weight gain, skin rash, and upset stomach.

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs)

 TZDs make the body more sensitive to insulin. Side Effects: Weight gain, fluid retention, heart failure, and an increased risk of fractures.

DPP-4 Inhibitors

DPP-4 inhibitors help lower blood sugar. Side Effects: Upper respiratory infections, headache, and joint pain.

GLP-1 Receptor Agonists

GLP-1 agonists stimulate insulin production and inhibit glucagon. Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and a possible risk of pancreatitis.

 SGLT2 Inhibitors

 SGLT2 inhibitors help kidneys remove glucose from the bloodstream. Side Effects: Urinary tract infections, yeast infections, and an increased risk of dehydration.


Meglitinides stimulate rapid insulin release. Side Effects: Low blood sugar, weight gain, and potential liver issues.


Insulin is essential for managing blood sugar in type 1 and some type 2 diabetes patients. Side Effects: Low blood sugar, weight gain, and injection site reactions.